Date of completion    05  12  2000 (Month Day Year)

Respondent’s details
Name:  Refilwe Morongwa
Surname: Malimabe

Female  X

Institution belonged to: National Language Service Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology
Address: Private Bag X195 Pretoria, 0001, South Africa
Telephone: 27 12 337 8366
Fax:  27 12 324 2119

Details of language

Glotonym or name of language on which you are providing data: Setswana
Autoglotonym  (name given to the language by native speakers): Setswana
Heteroglotonym  (name given by the non-native community to the language): Tswana

What language group does the language belong to?
Family:  The Bantu family- (Alice Werner (Doke and Cole 1962:76)
Group:  Eastern Bantu
Subgroup: The Sotho group (Doke and Cole (1961)

What type of language is it?
Creole []
Pidgin []
Setswana is neither a Creole nor a Pidgin language. It is one of the indigenous languages of South Africa with seven dialects. However, due to contact with English and Afrikaans, Setswana has a number of loan words that have been assimilated into Setswana.

  1. Does this language have other varieties? If so, what are these?

Yes. Sekgalagadi in Botswana and Shilozi in Namibia and Zambia have many similarities and a high vocabulary of Setswana. However, Botswana does not regard these languages as their varieties nor their dialects.

  1. Does this language exist in written form?

Setswana was first written in 1806 when Heinrich Lictenstein wrote Upon the Language of the Beetjuana. In 1815, John Cambell wrote Bootchuana words and was immediately followed by Burchell who wrote about Botswana in 1824. Dr Robert Moffat from the London Missionary Society arrived among the Batlhaping in Kudumane in 1818, and he built the first school for Botswana. In 1825, he realised that he must use and write Setswana in his teachings. He finished translating The Gospel according to Luke in 1830, The New Testament in 1840 and the Old Testament in 1857.
John Campbell wrote in 1822 a long story about his travels among the Batlhaping, Barolong and Bahurutshe called Travels in South Africa/Maeto mo Aferika Borwa…). In 1837 James Archbell wrote Grammar of the Bechuana Language and Eugene Casalis followed him in 1841 who wrote Etudes sur la langue Sechuana.
In 1876 Reverend J T Brown wrote: Lokoalo loa Mahuku a Secoana le Seeneles. Four years later, Canon William Crisp published a book called Notes towards Secoana Grammar  Setswana publication continued in 1881 when another New testament translation was produced by The London Missionary Society in London. The written works of 1881 were followed by A.J. Wookey`s publication Secoana Grammar Activities.
George Lowe in 1916 helped in the translation of the Epistles and the Book of Acts. The first Motswana who contributed to the history of written Setswana is Sol D T. Plaatje, who, with the help of Professor Jones wrote Tones of Secwana Nouns in 1929. The New Testament and the Psalms were translated in 1963 in the 1910 authography and the whole Bible was translated into Setswana 1970. In 1947 John Appleyard published in the Christian Watchman (Modisa wa Mokeresete).
Although Setswana was the first language among the Sotho group to be written, publication of literary works started only in 1940, when D P Moloto published his first novel called Mokwena (Bona Press Ltd.), in 1944, it was followed by Motimedi (Bona Press Ltd.). Moji Motlhabi (Bona Press Ltd.) followed in 1964.  The best author who started publishing novels after Moloto is D.P.S. Monyaise, and he published the following best sellers: (1961) Marara (J. L. van Schaik Ltd); (1965) Ngaka Mosadi Mooka (J. L. van Schaik); (1967) Bogosi Kupe (J. L. van Schaik Ltd.); (1974) Go sa Baori (J. L. van Schaik) and in (1976) Omphile Umphi Modise (J. L. van Schaik). Other genres, poetry, short stories, essays, dramas and traditional literature followed at a steady pace until the new government took over Publications in literary genres are now slow due to the changes in the curriculum

Bibliography of the Tswana Language: Compiled by: Marguerite Andree Peters and Matthew Mathethe Tabane 1982.
Birth of a national language – The history of Setswana Tore Janson & Joseph Tsonope 1991 Heinemann Botswana.

Historical background from my thesis. (PhD). Comparative Literature and African literature.  Albert S. Gerald 1993. Via Africa. Pretoria

  1. Is there standardisation of the language?

Yes. Setswana was first written by different missionaries who worked under different dialect speakers of Setswana. They wrote Setswana as they heard it. As a result different authographies existed with the first publications, which were mostly influenced by English. For example, the words Botswana and Botswana were spelled: Heinrich Lictenstein – Beetjuna; John Cambell –Bootchuna Burchell – Sichuana, James Archbell Bechuana. Dr Robert Moffat was influenced by the sounds and orthography of English. For example, he used sh when writing the word Moshe due to the sound sh as in she instead of Mose. After every five or ten years the authors tried to come up with a standard orthography. Wookey`s Grammar was followed by the 1910 orthography. According to the 1910 orthography, Reverend Sandilands used the consonant d in the word dihila (di) instead of using the consonant r in the word rihile, which was used in the 1881 New Testament. It uses the conjunctive oa (of).
The following differences occur:
The usage of e instead of y
Raea – raya
The usage of h instead of r
Diha – dira
The usage of y instead of j
Bolaya – bojalwa.
Professor D. T. Cole illustrated that the 1910 orthography had eleven vowels, in contrast to the five of English. In 1916 Solomon T. Plaatje, under the supervision of Professor Daniel Jones, wrote a Setswana Reader using the international Phonetics Orthography. The reader introduced a detailed discussion on the pronunciation of Setswana sounds and words. In 1930, in Mochudi, with the help of the Missionary Churches under the Dutch Reformed Church, a newspaper called Lesedi la Sechaba was published in the Sekgatla dialect. In this newspaper, one of the teachers called M. Seogoane, made a plea that Setswana should have a standard orthography. In the orthography that he proposed, he used the following sounds:
khg instead of kg
fh instead of f
gh instead of g
ths instead of g
ths instead of tlh
The differences in the orthography gave birth to The Institute of Languages and Cultures of African Languages which gave guidelines in the orthographies of Sesotho languages in a publication called Practical Orthography of African Languages. In July 1928 the Central Committee appointed a sub-committee which was known as the Central Orthographic Committee. Its task was to standardise the different orthographies. The same year four sub-committees, namely one for Venda, one for Tsonga, one for Zulu and Xhosa and one for Sesotho, Sepedi and Setswana were established. The latter was known as the Sutu-Pedi-Chwana Sub-Committee. However, the Sotho committee did not last long due to the differences in Sepedi, Sesotho and Setswana. In 1929 the Central Committee disbanded the Sutu-Pedi-Chwana Subcommittees.
Eventually in 1960, the Sesotho Language Board was dismantled, and in 1962 the Department of Bantu Education gave permission that there should be three separate committees, one for Sepedi, one for Setswana and one for Sesotho. Those committees would be responsible for the affairs of those languages. In 1962 the committee published a second orthographic booklet, Terminology and Orthography no.2. From 1962, the Setswana Language Board continued on its own.
Setswana have used Sehurutshe (one of the seven dialects) as a basis for standard Setswana. Some of the vocabulary from the other dialects has been incorporated.

Source: Mloto, E.S. 1964. A Critical Investigation into the standardisation of written Tswana. (Unpublished M.A dissertation). Pretoria: University of South Africa.

  1. Do you consider yourself a member of this linguistic community? If so, why?

No. The researcher is Northern Sotho (Mopedi) by birth, but she has studied Setswana from Primary School up to university level. She has conducted research for an MA and at present she is writing a doctoral thesis on the sociolinguistics of Setswana. I’m head of Setswana at the University of Pretoria, as well as examiner at the former University of Boputhatswana, North West, and the University of South Africa.

  1. Where is this language spoken? What are its geographical boundaries?

In South Africa, but more specifically in the provinces, Setswana speakers are concentrated in the North West (67,8%), but with the speakers also in Gauteng (17,4%), Free State (5,2%), Northern Province (2,0%), Mpumalanga (2,3%), Northern Cape (5,0%) and Western Cape (0,1%).

(Table 2.11 of Census in Brief- Report No: 03-01-11(1996).

  1. Have these geographical boundaries changed over the years? If so, how have they altered?

Yes. During the then Boputhatswana government, some villages of Botswana have been moved from areas like Ventersdorp, Koster, Lichtenburg and Ramatlababa to the surroundings of Mafeking and further towards the border of Botswana. These people are now moving to their old villages because of economic reasons (there are factories around these areas), and also because of the Land Reform Act.

  1. What is the physical terrain of this area like?

It is a semi-Kalahari terrain, mostly flatlands with sparse vegetation.

  1. Are any other languages spoken within the same territory? If so, what are these?

The other major languages of the provinces with high concentrations of this language are as follows:
North West Afrikaans 7,5%, Xhosa 5,4%, Sesotho 5,1%
Gauteng Afrikaans 16,7%, English 13%, Xhosa 7,5%, Zulu 21,5%, Sesotho 13,1%, Sepedi 9,5%

(Table 2.8, Census In Brief: Report No: 03-01-11 (1996)

  1. Could you enclose a sketch or indicate the area in which the language is spoken? (if you wish, you can draw a sketch in the space on the next page)

See Appendix.

  1. What State(s) / country (ies) do/es the territory/ies where the language is spoken belong to?

South Africa.

  1. What is the total number of inhabitants (whether or not they speak this language) of this territory?

The total number of inhabitants of South Africa is 40 583 573 (Census in brief: Report No: 03-01 (1996), p. 10). The total number of inhabitants of those provinces with high concentrations of Setswana speakers are as follows:
North West  3 354 825
Gauteng  7 348 423

  1. How many of the inhabitants understand, speak, read or write this language?

(1) Understand and speak  10 101 817
Total population of Botswana = 3 301 774
Total population of Basotho = 3 104 197 (7,7% of population)
Total population of Bapedi = 3 695 846 (9,2% of population)
Total = 10 101 817
NOTE: the assumption was made that all members of the Sotho group speak and understand Setswana .

(2) Read and  Write  1 499 665
Adult population of Botswana  = total population (B) * 60% (census 1996)
= 3 301 774*60%
= 1 981 064

Literate adults (75,7%)  = 1 981 064 *75,7% (Botswana)
= 1 499 665
Literacy is based on the fact that 75,7% of Africans have had some primary education.

(Census in Brief, tables 2.7, and 2.26)

Use this space to draw a map or sketch of the territory where this language is spoken.
See Appendix.

  1. How many of the speakers are monolingual (use only this language)?

It has been assumed that the illiterate population is monolingual, but exposure to other languages reduces the monolingual population, e.g. farm workers who are exposed to Afrikaans will influence the figure for monolingual. Monolingual in this case would mean 'no knowledge of either English or Afrikaans'.
1 981 064 * 24,3%= 481 398
It is not known how many Setswana speakers use only this language, but the figure would correlate with the youngest age groups, low educational levels and living in remote rural areas.

  1. How many of the speakers are bilingual (use this and another language)? What other language(s) do they speak?

The literate adults as per answer to question 12 are all bilingual because the education system taught English and Afrikaans. Part of the illiterate population is also bilingual as argued in question 13.

  1. How many of the speakers are multilingual (speak this and more than one other language)? What other languages do they speak?

All Setswana speakers are multilingual in the sense that they can also understand and speak the other two Sotho languages. All literate Setswana speakers would also be able to speak English and to a lesser extent, Afrikaans (cf. Question 12). It is not known to what extent they would actually be using a multiplicity of languages. The Language Study (1993) of the South African Broadcasting Corporation shows that 68% of Setswana language speakers have an understanding of at least one Nguni language. 26% claim to use at least one of the Nguni languages, especially around Gauteng.

  1. Are speakers of this language dispersed throughout the territory, or are they concentrated in specific population centres?

Setswana speakers are found all over South Africa, but more specifically in North West (67,8% of all Setswana speakers, but with speakers also in Gauteng (17,4%), Free State (5,2%), Northern Province (2,0%), Mpumalanga (2,3%), Northern Cape (5,0) and Western Cape (0,1%).

(Table 2.11 of Census in Brief- Report No:03-01-11(1996))

  1. How has the number of speakers of this language evolved over time (increased, decreased or remained stable)?

According to Schuring (1993:pp11-12) Setswana shows an increase from 5,5% to 8% over the period 1946 to 1991 (based on Census figures.) The latest census figures of June 1999 shows an increase of 7,85% (on the previous Tswana population). Compare population of Botswana in 1996 (3 301 774) with the 1999 population of 3 560 964).

  1. Is the language passed down from generation to generation? If not, why not? What language is replacing it?

Setswana is passed from generation to generation from home and in school. It is used as a medium of instruction from Grade 0-3. English is busy replacing Setswana because it is viewed as a language of the educated and it is associated with economic growth and a passport out of poverty, low status to national and international recognition. With the acceptance of Black learners into (the then Model C schools) today called multiracial schools, many middle class parents send their children to these schools and these children avoid speaking African languages at home. The parents are also encouraged by the teachers to communicate only in English with their children so that their English could improve. Unfortunately, some of them cannot communicate in any African languages.

Series of Boswa published matters relating to Setswana culture. Ngwau ya Setswana – Kgomotso Mogapi (1991) L.Z Sikwane Publishers

  1. Could you indicate how often the members of each generation use the language with other generations (old people with old people, young people with old people, etc) in their informal contacts (in the street, at home, in leisure time,…)?

     … Speak the language with
The people... Elderly Men Elderly Women Adult Men Adult Women Young Men Young Women Boys Girls
Elderly Men 5 5 5 5 3 4 3 3
Elderly Women 5 5 5 5 3 4 3 3
Adult Men 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3
Adult Women 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3
Young Men 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3
Young Women 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3
Boys 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2
Girls 4 4 4 4 3 3 2 2

Specify the frequency: 5 = always in this language; 4 = more in this language than others; 3 = equally often in either language; 2 = more in other languages than in this one; 1 = always in other languages.

  1. Do the speakers of other languages speak this language? In what circumstances?

Yes. In predominantly Setswana areas other language speakers are compelled to adapt to Setswana and in urban areas in the past, to speak Sekgatla – one of Setswana dialects, was regarded by other African language speakers, especially the Bapedi who came to work in Pretoria, as urbanised. At present, due to the new government, each ethnic group is proud of its language, although in the urban areas due to contact with other languages, one finds the languages influencing one another.

  1. Is there any historical, political or economic factor which has affected the situation of this linguistic community?

Historically – Even though the homelands were viewed in a negative way for perpetuating apartheid, they promoted the different African languages including Setswana. It was also during the apartheid era that Botswana was removed from some of the fertile areas to dry unfertile areas where farming was impossible. This act forced Botswana to stop farming and most of them went to the mining industries like Kimberley and Gauteng. This was the beginning of urban areas which is multilingual and multicultural, hence the influence of other languages on Setswana.

  1. Has any other factor directly influenced the growth or threatened the future of the language (migration, temporary labour, deportations, wars…)?

Transition from apartheid to democracy has created a gap, which threatened the growth of Setswana due to restructuring of language bodies. For example, in 1994 all African Language Boards were disbanded without alternative structures.

  1. Is the language currently threatened? If so, what is the cause?

Yes. It is threatened by English. There is more code switching and code mixing in Setswana than before because the media and the government promote English as a language of communication, trade, politics and commerce.

Research Studies by Malimabe R M, not yet completed: Adaptation of Setswana to Changing Situations.

  1. Is the community which speaks this language in danger? If so, what is the cause?

No. Botswana are very proud of being a nation and they are now and then reminded by the media like Motswedi Radio Station in programmes such as Knowing your Cultures (Ikitse). There used to be The Bureau of Language and Culture in the then Boputhatswana, which were “watch dogs “ who guarded the “purity” and the idiom of the Setswana language. The only problem is caused by the politicians who are supposed to take heed of Setswana as an official language according to the1996 Constitution (Act No. 108 of the Republic of South Africa), but instead they continue speaking English only.

  1. Is there any internal migration (movement of the population within the territory)? Is there any external migration (movement out of the territory to others)? If so, what is the cause?

Internal, that is from the traditional territories, people from the remote rural areas are moving to the semi-urban areas like Mafeking, and to urban areas like Rustenburg, Potchefstroom and Klerksdorp (which still falls under North West province).
External, that is people from the traditional territories who move to areas outside the traditional territories, for example, many people from Mafeking and Hammanskraal are moving to Gauteng. Because of being nearer Gauteng, the Botswana around Mabopane and Hammanskraal regard themselves as being part of Gauteng province. Both groups are moving to these areas in search of greener pastures. It is more like a promotion shift. Immediately one becomes educated, everyone regards their environment as not suitable for their status.

  1. What is the main economic activity of this community?

Farming and mining (Rustenburg platinum and chrome mines).

  1. What is the influence of religion on this community?

We have three groups: Born-again Christians who trust and believe in the Trinity, Christians who believe in God only and non-Christians who believe in ancestral worship.

  1. Does the language have any official status (official, joint-official language, acceptance…)?

It has joint official status according to the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. p. 4. Act 108 0f 1996).

  1. Is the language in contact with the administration? Indicate whether its use in the administration is in spoken and/or written form.

For purposes of communication and interpreting legal or formal matters, Setswana is spoken, but for filling in things like forms, English and Afrikaans are used. Some companies like Telkom have translated some of its advertising materials into Setswana and other African languages.

  1. Is this language used in education (whether as the teaching medium or as a subject of study)? Indicate whether there is spoken and/or written use of the language in elementary and higher education.

Yes. As a medium of instruction from Grade 0-3 and as a subject in other Grades. Other universities like the University of North West, the University of the North, the University of Pretoria is using Setswana as a medium of instruction. However at the University of Pretoria, second and third language speakers are taught Setswana in English and Afrikaans while the University of South Africa use Setswana as a medium of instruction in literature only and grammar is taught through the medium of English.

  1. Is this language used in the media (radio, newspapers and television…)?

Yes. Setswana is used on radio and television and it has a multilingual newspaper called Seipone/Mirror with more articles in English than in Setswana. Before the new government there were also magazines like Morongwa and Tswelopele. Radio stations like Motswedi Radio Station and Radio Mmabatho promote the use of Setswana.

  1. Is this language used in religious services and ceremonies? Indicate whether there is spoken or written use of the language I n religious services and ceremonies.

Yes. In predominantly Setswana areas, Setswana is used during preaching and announcements are written in Setswana. In urban areas, one finds for example, Lutheran-Botswana or Lutheran-Bapedi, thus in the Luthern-Batswana congregation only Setswana will be used. The Bible, hymnbooks, booklets on the teachings, and some principles of the different churches are written in Setswana.

  1. Is the language used in business and labour relations? Indicate whether the use is spoken and/or written.

At grassroots level business is conducted in Setswana, but in higher levels of business, English is used for communication as well as in the labour relations. However, in the Unions, the Shop Stewards will communicate with the workers in Setswana while negotiating with management in English and in some cases in Afrikaans.

  1. Are there any other areas in which this language is used in its written form?

Yes. Literature books used in schools and at tertiary level. In the then Boputhatswana, the government gazettes were translated into Setswana. Adult literacy class use Setswana as a basis and as a bridge to second language acquisition.

  1. Is there any organisation or body responsible for linguistic policy and planning with respect to this language? What kind of activities does this perform?

Yes, the Department of Education and the Department of Arts, Culture, Science and Technology. The Pan South African Language Board (PANSALB) is promoting multilingualism and Setswana is one of these languages. Special emphasis is placed on the previously marginalised languages (African languages).

  1. Is there any kind of cultural or linguistic organisation or body which promotes the knowledge and/or use of the language? What kind of activities does this perform?

PANSALB is busy with the furtherance and promotion of multilingualism and it also holds language festivals.

  1. Does the language have a literary tradition? If so, please give some information about this literary tradition.

Yes. Cf also question 2. In the past there was the Sol Plaatje Literary Awards which were held annually by the then Setswana Language Board. At present different publishing houses submit any literary genre to M-Net for the annual M-Net Literary Awards. Publications of different genres, as well as Outcomes based school handbooks for Setswana are currently appearing.

  1. What is the attitude of the majority of the members of this community towards the knowledge and use of this language?

The majority of educated Botswana are opting for English because they see better future prospects in English than in Setswana. Parents, even illiterate ones, opt for English as a medium of instruction for their children from inception (Grades 0-3), hence the high level of code switching and code-mixing.

  1. What is the attitude of the majority of the members of the neighbouring communities towards the knowledge and use of the language?

Every community seems to be obsessed with the promotion of their own languages since all the 11 languages are regarded as equal. This can be picked up on television and radio, for example the Tshivenda and Xitsonga speakers are complaining that these minority languages are not given enough air time.

  1. PLEASE ADD ANY OTHER DETAILS REGARDING THE SITUATION OF THE LANGUAGE WHICH YOU CONSIDER OF INTEREST. At the same time, we would be grateful if you could send us any statistics, reports, assignment or research that might help us to understand the situation of this language. It would also be very helpful if you could provide references of the sources consulted and the addresses of any individuals or bodies that may be able to offer further data about this language.

The Democratically elected Government of South Africa has elevated the status of the previously marginalised languages to the status of official languages. In terms of the Constitution of South Africa all eleven official languages are equal and should be equally developed.
As mandated by the Constitution, PANSALB has, in terms of PANSALB ACT 59 of 1995, established Provincial Language Committees in all provinces. The main task of these committees is to advise PANSALB on any language matter affecting the provinces.
Also, PANSALB is in the process of establishing language specific bodies, which will advise it on any particular language, e.g. Setswana. Negotiations are being conducted to have North West Province as the section for the Setswana National Language Body.
Furthermore, National Lexicography Units are being established for the purpose of promoting language developments. This means that Setswana as one of the 11 official languages, is also being developed so that in the future it can be used as medium of instruction at tertiary education and thus earn respect from its speakers and other nations as a language of economy, education and politics etc.


List of Setswana literature

Short stories
Leseyane, P:  Letlhaku le legologolo (Van Schaik, Pretoria) 1963
Magoleng, B D : Ke a go bolela  (Van Schaik) 1974
Mogapi K  Sefalana sa ditso(1980)
Magoleng B. D Ntsime J.M: Mpolelele Dilo (Via Africa) 1984
Ntsime J.M:  Ntlotlele tsa maloba (Via Africa) 1984
Malope R.M:   Mmualebe (1982)
Mantswe a robong (Longman)(1983)
Setshedi J E:  Mosekaphofu  (Maikatlepelo Publishers)(1983)
Magana go Utlwa (Maikatlepelo Publishers)(1985)
Masope a Mabebi  (Maikatlepelo Publishers) (1986)
Seboni M.O.M: Koketso-Kitso ya lefatshe
Shole S J:   O foo ke fano (1985)
Mmileng M T:  Mangotelo (Maikatlepelo Publishers) (1986)

Period between 1991-1994
Some of the short stories published during this period are Moanegi by A T Moetapele Moapaya bodila by Bogatsu O.K in 1991.
Ceasite by Peega L.R (1991), Le nna ke Ngwanake by Magasa M J and Molokoe B K (1992). Those published in1993 are Mpepu Nnaka by Makaoka E.M.N
And kgotla o mone by Mokua S.S. In 1994 Motswedi wa dikeledi and Ga le tshatse by Magoleng B D.

Keamogetse, P P #(1984) Ikarabele (Maikatlepelo Publishers)
Matseke, S K  # (1980) Mmalonya (Bona Press)
Metsileng, T S  # (1984) Monnamotlhoki (Via Africa)
Setshedi, J E  #(1965) Pelo e ja serati (Via Africa Cape town)
#(1968) Kobo e ntsho (Via Africa Cape town)
#(1972) Pelo e ntsho  (Via Africa Cape town)
#(1976) Matlhotlhapelo (Via Africa Cape town)
# (1985) Ke batla go itse rre
#(1980) Lerato ke eng? (Via Africa)
Rantao, M N  #(1982) Ditiragalo (Via Africa)
Seboni, M O M #(1972) Kgosi Henry wa bone (bona press)
Gaetsewe, J S  # (1965) Botsang Rre (OUP)
Malao    # (1990) Phitlhela. (Hodder & Stoughton Educational)
Mogapi, K  # (1985) Tshekatsheko ya dikwalo.
Sikwane, Z L  (        ) Marothodi (author Publisher)

The period between 1991-1994
B. Malefo produced her first attempt in Gogola go tlhogola in (1991) the same year Makhaya published Bobi jwa segokgo. In 1992 three books were published: O kgomotso ngwanaka by Mataboge, Ke jewa ke lerato by Magasa and Sethunya sa bohutsa. Another three dramas were published in 1993: Nko ya kgomo by tsambo T.L.Mothudi le moraedi by Makhele and Botshe jwa lefatshe by Sekgobela. In 1994 Sebedi published Ntsholeng.

Maleke, S M  #(1960) Boswa jwa tau ke letlalo (author Pubhliser)
Malope, R M  #(1980) Mathloko Mathloko (Malope Sovenga)
Mekgwe, J M K  #(1976) Masaikategeng a magodimo (Van Schaik Tp)
Rathebe, N J K  #(1987) Maungo a Matsapa (Book Sudio)
Moloto, D P  #(1980) Manyobonyobo (Via Africa)
Morule, J S  #(1985) Malebo lesome (educum)
Moncho, K G  #(1984) Ikeleng
Kitchin, M S  #(1966) Molotlhanyi  (Bona press Ltd. Johannesburg)
Mokgoko, M N E  #(1983) Nkwe-Nkgoge   (author Publishers)
Moroke, S A  #(1960) Sephaphati  (Via Africa Johannesburg)

The period between 1981-1994
In this period, the increase of novels was very low when compared to other genres. Mokgoko E.M published Nkwe Nkgoge. The other author is S. A Moroke who wrote Lesapo le lesweu. In 1982 only one novel was published, Diselammapa by Mohurutshane M.L. Moncho N.K. published Ikeleng tlhoko (1984), Modiri Modirwa (1986), Fa a lelela Legodu. (1986) by Makhele. In 1987 there was an improvement because two novels were published , Maswe a dinala by Mokgosi B, Phitlhelelo kwa Setlhoeng by Malao and Molao wa manong  by Busang. In 1989 three novels were published namely Motlhapisa podi ngolwana by Mosimanegape D.M, Mahutsana, a ga Bareki by Masita M. T. and Khutsanyana e sa sweng by  Leseyane I.I.

Ntsime, J M  (1986) Mafoko a mafatswa (Via Africa)
Legodi, K J  (1986) Sebube maloba (Maikatlapelo Publishers)
Seate, T M M  (1988) Poko ya me ke botshelo  (Educum)
Serobatse, T M  (1988) Motswako wa Puo    (Educum)
Mogotsi, M C D (1981) Selelo sa mmoki (Sasavona)
Kotsokoane, Z S (1981) Solofela leraga (De Jager Haum)
Kopone, P K  (1967) Dipakwana tsa bana (Via Africa)
Chweneemenang (1977) Sethoboloko (Educum, JHB)
Lekgetho, J M; Kitchin, M S le N H: (1947) Boswa jwa puo.
Mafoyane, S S  (1972) Moretlo (Botswana book Centre, Gaborone)
Magoleng, B D  (1976) Boka ke boke (Via Afrika, Cape Town)
(1979) A re boke  (Van Schaik, Pretoria)

The period 1991 – 1994
The poetry books published in this period are Borobe jwa puo by Moetsi R.T, Lemme ga le bolae by Setlalekgosi, Botshelo Lerumo bo a tlhaba by Khunou F.S, Ke se ke leng sona by Z.S Dipale (1991) and Mapagamo by S.F. Motlhake. Morokotso  and Kgatse le (1992) by T.A.P Dire and Makhue by Dipale Z.S.

Traditional literature
Around 1984 the Department of Education introduced for the first time in the syllabus for African Languages, traditional literature, A few books were published:
Ntlhabele Dinaane (1993) by Z.S Dipale. Johannesburg: Shuter & Shooter; and
Dinaane tsa Setswana by B.J. Rantao.

Grammar books
Wesleyan Press published the first books, which were regarded as grammar books. There were two, the first by Reverend J. Archbell (1837-1838) which included Serelong , Setlhaping and other Northem dialect, and the second by Reverend E. Casalis in 1841, which was written in French.

Isaac Hughes, a missionary under the London Missionary Society, wrote between 1828 and 1858 a grammar, which is in manuscript form. According to Alexander Sandilands, this manuscript was prepared to help the missionaries only who were learning Setswana. An analysis (molokololo wa puo ya Botswana) of the language of  the Betchuara’s by David Livingston was published in 1858 and in 1864 J. Fredoux of Paris Missionary Society, published A sketch of Schuana grammar (Tshwantsho ya thuta puo ya Setswana). Notes (See other tittles under no.2 of this questionnaire, around  (1922-1930).

Desmond T. Cole published an introduction to Tswana grammar (1955), which was more scientific. Cole in collaboration with DM Makaila again compiled a course in Tswana in 1962. Introductory notes on the Tswana language was written in 1952. The Tswana-leerboek by J.A Ferreira and A.T. Malepe (1968) was used as course notes for students at the University of South Africa (UNISA). Setswana sa borre (1969) by A.T. Malepe was a grammar book for high school students. “Bua ka Tolamo by E.S. Moloto and S.J. Malao  and “Setswana sa ka Metha” by Matseke were both  published in (1968).

Other grammar books are:
Kitso ya Setswana Mophato wa 7 by F M Lesele , J Baloyi and E Mothlagodi                       (1989)
Setswana se tlhagatlhagang mophato wa 7 & 10. R M Lekala
Segarona sa borutabana  fonetiki le diphetogo modumo(1990) Snyman J.W
Segarona sa borutabana  thuta puo (1990) Snyman J.W.
E antswe letseleng J. M. Ntsime ) Setswana sa kwa’Lowe
Mophato wa  9 by J.Malao
The sound system of Setswana J.W. Snyman( VIA AFRIKA PRETORIA ).

A first vocabulary list was published in “Travels in Southern Africa 1803, 1804, 1805 and 1806 by Hery Lichteinstein. It  contained about 270 words and In 1815 John Campbell published 80  words in Bootchuana words. William Burchel published more than 100 words. In a voyage to Abyssinia  Henry Salt in (1814) published a list of “Mutshuana” words.

The first dictionary was compiled by John Brown of the London Missionary Society in 1876. It was  called “Lokwalo loa Mahuku a Secwana le Seeneles. A revised one with additions in was published in 1895 and reprinted in 1914 and 1921. The one compiled by A.J. Wookey and John Tom Brown followed in 1925.

Dictionaries for Everyday usage
Thanodi ya Setswana, by M.L.A. Kgasa and J. Tsonope. (Botswana – Gaborone: Longman Botswana, 1995)
Thanodi ya Setswana ya dikolo, by BA Kgasa (Cape Town: Longman Penguin South  Africa (PTY)Ltd, 1976)
Setswana English Dictionary, by Z.T. Matumo (Botswana –Gaborone: Macmillan Botswana, 1993)
Setswana English  Afrikaans Dictionary by Snyman, Shole and Le Roux (Pretoria:Via Afrika, 1990).
Setswana English Dictionary , Revd, J. Tom Brown (Johannesburg: Pula Press, 1987)
Die Kort Veeltalige Woordeboek (Afrikaans, Xhosa, Zoeloe, Noord-Sotho, Suid-Sotho ,Tswana, Engels by  LE Jennings et. al. A.D. Donker (Johannesburg, Jeppestown: A.D. Donker, 1995)
Across the Curriculum by K. Hartshorn  English/Setswana Dictionary.
The concise multilingual Dictionary, L.E Jennings

School readers
It has been difficult to come out with the correct authors, date of publications and ISBN numbers for different readers.

Among the first readers. Padisho en (1863), Pasho en II (1862) by J.D.M Ludorf was published in the Serolong dialect. Buka en Sepeleta le en likao, le e a polelo tsa bogologolo by William (risp in 1871), Lokualo loa eintla. (Verslag des Missionshouse, (1865). Other readers were a combination of grammar and stories. One of the first to be published wan “Buka en dikao tsa ntlaha tse di rutang go buisa puo en Sicwana”(1869)”, “Tsala ya me,” Lesilinyane, “Maitiso,”Livingstone Tswana readers”, Montsamaisa bosigo (N.G. Mokone and “Buka ya go buisa” (P. Leseyane), “Mopele” and Mogorosi II were all published by the Hermannsburg Mission and later series of “Matlhasedi I.VI by Ntsime, Roussenn and Mampie.

(Source: Bibliography of  the Tswana Language a bibliography of books, periodicals, pamphlets and manuscripts to the year 1980. Compiled by M. A.  Peters and M. M. Tabane), Pretoria: The State Library . 1982.

Other literatures
Cross-Border Languages Reports and studies Regional workshop on Cross-Border languages, edited by K. Legere. Okahandja, 23-27 September 1996(NIED) Gamsberg Macmillan. NAMIBIA.
South African Journal of African Languages.
-South African Journal for FOLKLORE STUDIES.
- PANSALB NEWS  The official newsletter of the PAN SOUTH AFRICAN LANGUAGE BOARD January – March 2000